On the blog

Friday, 18 November 2016

Why World Toilet Day matters for the Dorteas of this world


Every toilet twinned to celebrate World Toilet Day brings safety and dignity to a family like Dortea’s. No wonder she’s happy…

It wasn’t so very long ago that Dortea’s smile was a rare event. Every time she and her daughters needed the toilet, they had to venture out into the bush.

‘My husband would stand at the edge of the compound and wait, worrying that something bad might happen to us,’ she recalls. ‘As a mother, I was afraid every time my daughters went. They had to go in groups or be escorted by me.’

Dortea's life has changed, thanks to her loo
The dangers in this remote part of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo are many. Snakes and scorpions lurk in the scrub. Dortea’s husband was bitten by a snake a few years and was in hospital for three weeks.

But it wasn’t the wildlife that posed the greatest threat to Dortea and her girls…

‘I came back from the fields one evening with my husband,’ recalls Dortea. ‘A man was waiting in the bush. He came from behind and tried to push me forwards. He used a lot of force… said he had a machete. Then my husband appeared and the man ran off.’

Mwandiga village is in South Kivu province, close to the border with Rwanda and Burundi. At the height of the civil war, armed insurgents from these countries flooded across the frontier, to join what became known as ‘Africa’s World War’. Sexual violence against women was rife across Congo – but South Kivu was a flashpoint.

‘At that time, many people were being attacked as they worked in their fields or came home in the evening,’ says Dortea. ‘Women and girls were also attacked as they went to the bush to go to the toilet, or when they walked to get water. Things were really bad.’

Mwandiga village began as a clearing hacked out of the forest that still surrounds it. Most people came here with nothing in 2008 and found nothing here. They had fled to Tanzania at the height of the civil war, and then been forcibly repatriated.

Gradually, people started building homes and cultivating land. But there was no clean water, and no sanitation. Dortea and her daughters used to have to walk to the shore of Lake Tanganyika to wash or collect water for cooking. It was a long trek, fraught with risks.

Now, despite DRC’s volatile political situation and rumours of conflict, Dortea and her neighbours in Mwandiga feel much safer. Their first line of defence is the new latrines being dug at homes across the village.

Ekyoci watches her son use their tippy tap
Tearfund, whose water and sanitation work Toilet Twinning funds, began to set up Community Health Clubs in the area in 2013. The aim was to help villagers learn and share skills in hygiene and health matters, and to encourage everyone to dig pit latrines next to their houses, for their own families and for one another.

Now Dortea and family have a toilet: they dug the pit, Tearfund provided the slab. And there’s now a borehole nearby, ending their long treks to the lake.

Residents of Mwandiga are now proudly showing off the new tippy taps they use to clean their hands and the bathing areas that they've constructed so they can have privacy when they wash themselves and their children. They now have a drying rack for their pots and pans, to keep them off the ground, and a rubbish pit to contain their waste.

‘Personal hygiene for us and our children was all new to us,’ says Ekyoci, Dortea's neighbour. ‘There used to be a lot of flies buzzing around but they have decreased. We have a lot less disease now.’

Their friend, Zaina, laughs as she talks of Health Club members’ hard sell as they encourage everyone to have a toilet.

‘There is always someone in this village talking about toilets!’ says Zaina. ‘”You must have a toilet, you must have a toilet…” That's how I knew that it was really important for my family’s health and security.

‘The best thing about having our own toilet is the privacy. We know now that we can’t be seen as we go to the toilet.’

Zaina is proud she can protect her sons' health
Dortea, Zaina and Ekyoci are all immensely proud of their toilets. Because, although they have no control over what happens at national level, they can at least be sure that they’re doing what they can to keep their families safe.

As Dortea puts it, ‘People do not need to go far from their houses any more. The instances of women being attacked are much reduced. Things are different now…’

World Toilet Day, which is on November 19 every year, exists to help more people like Dortea, Zaina and Ekyoci access proper sanitation. Their lives have been transformed by a simple pit latrine and some basic training.

Isn’t it time the same thing happened for the one-in-three people who still don’t have a toilet? Twin your toilet today and rewrite someone’s future.

Friday, 22 July 2016

How toilets are restoring dignity and hope in the DRC


Simple latrines mean safety and dignity for women like Bawili and Ebinda in the Democratic Republic of Congo, as Toilet Twinning's CEO Lorraine Kingsley discovered.

Ebinda was 14 when she was attacked. It was early evening – about 6pm – and she had gone into the bush to relieve herself. It was not yet dark so her mum, Bawili, allowed her to go out alone.

But as Ebinda crouched down, someone grabbed her neck. She doesn’t know how many of them there were: she couldn’t see them. They pushed her to the ground.

Bawili saw the bruises and scratching around Ebinda’s neck as soon as she ran in, crying. She knew instantly what had happened.

The Médecins Sans Frontières doctors who treated Ebinda observed that, if she’d had a proper toilet at home, the attack would never have happened.


Ebinda, with her mother, Bawili
Meet Bawili and Ebinda for yourself: watch our Big Relief film

But Bawili couldn’t afford to build a toilet. Her husband was shot dead during the civil war insurgency in the 1990s, and the remaining family fled as refugees to Tanzania. When the Tanzanian refugee camp was closed down in 2008, they were sent to South Kivu province, eastern Congo, to start again.

They had nothing and there was nothing for them in Mwandiga village. No water, no sanitation, no home.

They could only afford one jerry can, so Ebinda would make three journeys a day to the lake for water. It was a 90-minute round trip. Each journey put her at risk of being attacked. Each jerry can of dirty lake water put the family’s health at risk. 

A few months after they settled in Mwandiga, Ebinda was bitten by a snake as she crouched in the bush – and the hospital didn’t have any antivenom serum. She says she has felt weak ever since.

A few months after that, the brutal attack happened. Ebinda fell pregnant and left school as a result: her son is now six. She told us that she hasn’t felt truly happy since the attack. 

Bawili believes that if her husband had still been alive, he would have had the strength to build them a toilet. 
Widow Bawili provides for her family alone

And yet, this family – despite their deep poverty – spent three days with us, opened up their home to us, laughed with us and shared their story with grace and poise. 

Toilet Twinning helps fund the water and sanitation programme of Tearfund, and when Tearfund first set up Community Health Clubs in the Mwandiga area in 2012, Bawili was among the first to join. She never missed a meeting; she always arrived first.

When the group voted in their first president, Bawili was the obvious choice. She encouraged villagers to build their own toilet, one by one – even though she wasn’t able to build one herself. ‘Don’t look at me,’ she’d say. ‘I can’t afford a toilet but you must do this for your family’s health and safety.’

So the group voted unanimously to build Bawili a toilet. A year ago, members gathered materials and dug it together. Bawili brought the water each day and helped make the bricks. 

Now her toilet is her pride and joy. ‘My toilet brings us freedom, privacy and dignity as a family. We used to feel shame when we had people visit us and we didn’t have a toilet for them to use. People would shout abuse at us as we walked to the bush. I am so thankful and so happy to have a toilet. It is a big relief.’

Bawili (centre), with her family and their toilet

Now, when the Community Health Club meets under the trees each Sunday, the members open with a song they have written themselves:

‘Community, we must build a toilet 
Community, we must have a bathroom 
Community, we must wash our hands with soap or ash 
Community, we must have a rubbish pit 
To protect our health.’


During our time in Mwandiga, we would get many impromptu renditions of the song as the children crowding around us would start to sing.

DRC remains one of the poorest countries in Africa. There is no infrastructure, no rule of law. There are fears that President Joseph Kabila may call off the elections scheduled for November. If he does, civil war may follow. 

And yet, there is hope. You can see it and touch it in Mwandiga.

The community have come together, learnt together and discovered that they have the power to improve life for their families. They don’t need to wait for the government to act. They don’t sit around, hoping that another NGO might turn up to build a school, or hand out food.

As members of a Community Health Club, they can all see what happens when they take charge of their families’ futures. They all talk about feeling safer, and having less disease now. 

And they all talk about the day they built their toilet – and restored dignity to their household. 

They may not know what the future holds. But they believe it will be better than their past. Their toilets are an important first step in the right direction.

Meet Bawili and Ebinda for yourself: watch our Big Relief film 
And why not plan your do for a loo for World Toilet Day on November 19?



Tuesday, 26 April 2016

The Isle of Man’s alternative TT


What possesses someone to drive around the Isle of Man for hours, with a toilet perched on their car roof? Toilet Twinning champion Rosemary Clarke and our CEO Lorraine Kingsley come clean…

Manx residents were caught unawares by the scene that greeted them that sunny spring morning.

A van topped with a toilet and decorated with loo brushes, balloons and bunting wound its merry way through towns and villages across the island for a full seven hours, before coming to a halt outside the Tynwald.



Twenty-eight times over the course of the day, the Toilet Tour-ists parked up, dived out and rushed to the loo.

It was not a case of overactive bladders. Rather they were marking a world first: the Isle of Man becoming our first-ever Toilet Twinned Island.

The Toilet Tour reaches Douglas. Photo: Isle of Man Today

'It’s not often you get invited into people’s homes to look at their loos or drive around in a toilet-topped van!’ says Rosemary (pictured front right, above). ‘But it was marvellous to see the enthusiasm of all the twinners and to be able to celebrate our new status as the world’s first Toilet Twinned Island.’

Over the past five years, more than 130 toilets have been twinned across the Island, in schools, businesses, churches and offices. Our Toilet Twinned awards are given to special communities which go above and beyond to twin toilets and work together to make a difference.

The earliest recorded toilet twins on the Island go right back to January 2011. Then, Manx twinning was given fresh impetus by Rosemary Clarke and colleagues at the One World Centre in St Johns when they launched a ‘Twin your toilet’ campaign with Churches Alive in Man during One World Week in 2014.

Knockaloe Beg Farm in Peel - and guests
One World Centre itself has held various memorable events including entering a Christmas ‘lav-a-tree’ made of loo brushes in the Festival of Trees at Ronaldsway Airport in 2014.

‘Twinning a toilet is such an easy thing to do and can have such a positive impact on the health, education and economic prospects of others. We’re delighted so many people have taken up the challenge and hope the tour might inspire even more people to do so.'

Lorraine (pictured second from right, front row, above) says, ‘It was truly heart-warming to tour the island, and see so many individuals, schools, churches and business people who were genuinely thrilled to be part of the day – and part of Toilet Twinning’s mission. We received a warm welcome wherever we went – even with people who let us run into their home and take a photo of them sitting on the loo with their certificate!’ 

The Toilet Tour ended with a reception at the Legislative Buildings in Douglas hosted by Ray Harmer MHK and David Anderson MLC. Toilet twinners were invited for a celebratory cuppa and a slice of toilet-themed cake, as Lorraine presented the award to Ray Harmer.

The TT reaches Henry Bloom Noble Primary School in Douglas
Of course, becoming a Toilet Twinned Village, Town, City or Island is just the start of the next leg of the journey: several Islanders have been inspired to twin their toilets as a result of the Toilet Tour.

Manx twinners are on a roll and don’t look like stopping any time soon, if Gladys Corlett of Onchan Methodist Church is anything to go by.

‘Both my grandmothers on the Island had outside loos and I'm so thankful we don't have that today,’ says Gladys. ‘We think that everybody deserves a decent toilet. Millions of people don't have access to one – and that's totally unacceptable. If you can help in any way at all, you feel you must.’

·         Find out more about how your community can become Toilet Twinned

Thursday, 10 March 2016

A toilet is for life – or why sustainability matters


For toilet aficionados like us, there’s nothing more tragic than the sight of a tapstand in disrepair or a toilet in disuse. We’re determined not to let this happen…

Picture the scene. A line of abandoned loos, busy only with flies. Close by, a cluster of children relieve themselves in the open air.

Sadly, it happens… but only when toilet-building statistics take priority over sustainability.

It happens when a team in a 4 x 4 sweeps in, builds loos, drills a borehole perhaps, and speeds off again straight after the obligatory handover photos. A month later, the new latrines are filthy, and people go back to relieving themselves outside.

We want to ensure that every toilet or tapstand we install is still being used and properly maintained a year later… and into perpetuity.

As our water and sanitation adviser, Frank Greaves, says, ‘No one refuses a new latrine for their household.’ But, unless people really grasp the life-transforming impact of proper sanitation, clean water and simple things like handwashing with soap, projects are money down the drain. Not on our watch…

Watch our short film about sustainability

Sustainability has two key ingredients: buy-in and behaviour change. In other words, if people realise the importance of proper sanitation for themselves in the first place and are willing to invest in it, good hygiene habits are likely to stick.

One key tool our partners use to help ‘trigger’ a desire for toilets is the gloriously named ‘defecation walk’.

Essentially, they invite villagers to walk with them around the community and point out the places where they relieve themselves. Through gentle questioning, they help people see the health risks for themselves, as Frank Greaves explains.

‘It’s not about blaming or embarrassing people or telling them what to do: it’s simply about facilitating a process through which people are encouraged to reflect on their own (and their communal) sanitation behaviour: disgust, revulsion, even shock, all play a part.

‘If the process is facilitated well, a real desire for change takes root. Sometimes, pointing out the simple fact that their children play very near a place where people defecate is enough to trigger the change.’

Susan has learnt about handwashing at school
The importance of sustainability is all too clear for our Ugandan partner, North Kigezi and Kinkiizi Dioceses (NKKD), which works in some of the poorest villages in the impoverished south-west of the country.

Previous state-led sanitation projects in Uganda have failed: latrines quickly fell into disuse because there was no local ownership. Child mortality linked to poor sanitation remains high.

So NKKD has refocused its work to make sustainability a priority – by placing a strong emphasis on local buy-in.

Its approach is to identify families who are particularly receptive to their sanitation and hygiene messages, and to equip them to lead by example. So their houses become ‘demonstration homes’ with a proper latrine, clothes lines, dish-drying rack, handwashing tippy tap and bins – so that these families can model good hygiene to their neighbours.

In one village, Kabirago, the number of toilets has almost doubled since NKKD began work there. Now three-quarters of households have their own toilet.

It also harnesses ‘pester power’: installing toilets and tippy-taps in school and teaching children about handwashing with soap so they will nag their parents to have the same facilities at home. 

Marius (right) with the headteacher of a school
where NKKD has built toilets
Creating a sense of ownership is vital if the community goes on to install shared facilities since these too must be properly maintained. So in any community project -– whether it’s a gravity flow pipeline or a school toilet block – NKKD insists that even the poorest of local communities contribute 15 per cent of the cost, either in cash or labour.

As NKKD Sustainability Mobiliser Marius Katanguka says: ‘Before, there would be breakages and nobody would be able to take care of them or nobody would be concerned.’

NKKD also works hard to ensure behaviour change is long term. In some communities it has encouraged people to draw up local by-laws relating to sanitation and it makes regular return visits to families to help embed good habits.

And all this matters of course because, as Marius says, it’s the cumulative benefits of long-term use of proper sanitation and clean water that give families the best chance of breaking out of poverty.

‘In the long term, [people’s] economic status [will improve] because the money that used to be spent in hospital is going to be saved to improve on their livelihoods,’ says Marius.





Friday, 16 October 2015

How toilets make you smarter


Forget your Carol Vorderman Maths genius manual. Sack the private Latin tutor. All you really need to get ahead in class is… a toilet, writes CEO Lorraine Kingsley. 

Ok, maybe not in Britain today. But it’s certainly true in Uganda, as 14-year-old Bridget will tell you…

Bridget at her home in south-west Uganda
The fact that Bridget is still in school is something of a miracle.

Uganda has one of the highest primary school drop-out rates in the world: only one in three Ugandan children completes primary education. And Bridget lives in one of the poorest parts of a poor country.

Her family are banana farmers – a particularly precarious existence, thanks to a banana blight that has decimated crops for the past five years.

Though state primary schooling is free, families still have to pay for uniforms and notebooks – and Bridget’s family can only just afford to eat. Her father was sick when we met him – because he didn’t have the £3 he needed to get medical help.

Bridget and her family
There’s another barrier to children’s education here – and especially for girls of Bridget’s age. Few schools have adequate toilets so boys and girls alike regularly fall sick and miss class. And when girls reach puberty and start their periods, they start missing school more often. Many drop out altogether.


At Bridget’s school, Ndago Primary School in Rukungiri district of south-west Uganda, about 20 girls used to drop out of school every year.

Bridget stayed put, but it’s not been easy.

‘Our old latrines were very disgusting, especially in the rainy season,’ she says. ‘You’d feel sick and people would be retching, because they were so smelly. We now have a very new pit latrine, which is comfortable to use. It’s got no bad smell and has no flies.’

The new toilet block for older pupils was installed by Toilet Twinning’s partner, North Kigezi and Kinkiizi Diocese Watsan (NKKD).

It also has a separate changing room, offering girls on their period somewhere private to wash or change their clothes. In poor, rural communities like these, families cannot afford sanitary towels.

‘Nearly all the girls wouldn’t come to school at all during their period – so they would miss a week of school per month,’ says headteacher Kenneth Mushoborozi. ‘This did affect their end-of-year grades.’

Bridget and younger sister Lodeth near the new school toilets
To his delight, more than 65 girls have enrolled at the school in the three months since its new toilets were installed. The old toilets for younger children have also been much improved, and NKKD Watsan has installed a water butt for handwashing.

The school held a special ceremony to celebrate their toilets, with singing and dancing.

We were there when the school’s new tapstand was unveiled, providing the children with fresh drinking water for the first time. Before, children were on a rota to trek 1km to collect from a stream. They missed class – for water contaminated by animal and human waste.

The tap stand was connected to a gravity flow pipeline and the children watched in silence as the tap turned on – then broke into spontaneous and sustained applause.

The beauty of this approach to hygiene education is that it harnesses ‘pester power’. Or as, headteacher Kenneth puts it, ‘Because of what the children have learnt at school, they will become ambassadors and teach their parents.’

For Bridget, life at home remains very basic. She shares a bed with one of her four sisters. All she owns is an exercise book for homework, a tin for her pencils and a few clothes. Her prized possession is a shiny pink dress that she wears for our arrival and the brief time we share with her family in the tiny entrance area that doubles as the family sitting room.

Our photographer and I perch on a wooden bench while Bridget and her mum and dad sit across from us on a sofa. The only other things in the room are a small table and two old calendars decorating the bare mud walls.

But change is coming. Our partner is now setting up ‘demonstration homes’ in the village, which have a proper latrine, a tippy-tap for handwashing, a drying rack for kitchen utensils and a line to dry clothes off the ground.

Such changes may sound modest but they’re key to keeping families heathy – so parents are well enough to work their land and children don’t miss school.

Bridget’s family lives opposite one of these model homes – and Bridget’s a committed ambassador at home for all that she’s learnt about hygiene at school.

When I finish school I want to become a nurse,’ she says. ‘To achieve this, I need to stay healthy.’

It’s a toilet which has encouraged Bridget to dream big – and it’s a toilet that has given her the first realistic chance of seeing those dreams become real.

·         Want to meet Bridget for yourself? Watch our short film about her school toilet block.  

Tuesday, 25 August 2015

Calling all students...


If you think poor sanitation is bang out of order, we have a mission for you – should you choose to accept it.

Tired of being branded as bed-hogging tutorial-dodgers? We know students are game-changers and world-shakers – and we have the evidence to prove it.

A group of students at the University of Warwick (including, Jess Docherty, right) went all out for toilets in their final year – and twinned almost 50 toilets in the Students’ Union. Others at Bristol and Durham universities also kicked student stereotypes into touch by raising awareness and dosh for dunnies.

So, inspired by their example, we went straight to the bathroom – birthplace of all great ideas – and emerged with the germ of a big new idea. (No, no, that’s a good thing, not a cause for soap.)

So here’s the challenge: create a twinning team, twin lots of toilets at your place of study and make yours a Toilet Twinned University or College.

In the next few weeks, we can send you a student pack containing all the info and resources you need to start twinning. There’ll also be advice on our website and we’re always on hand to help you with everything from setting up on social media to getting into the local papers.

Register your interest by emailing us on fundraising@toilettwinning.org (Sadly, we can’t send you cake, though.)

Crib sheets

To whet your appetite, let us show you what’s possible when a handful of students get passionate about toilets…

The Warwick Toilet Twinning team were a small but perfectly formed group of five students who blended creativity, puns and some wacky ideas in a year-long fundraising campaign.  
Ring-leaders Emily Boyce (far left) and Jess Docherty began by gaining the support of the Student Union, the Student Council and the Christian Union – and soon earned themselves a bit of a reputation on campus.
To mark World Toilet Day (November 19), they organised a Big Squat – which involved a relay team of students squatting for 12 hours solid in the main campus piazza. Other events included a cake bake (above), a second-hand clothes sale and an ‘Apoostic Night’ when musician friends gave their time at a fundraising gig.
Jess and Emily even dressed up as toilets (right) to collect spare change, laying their reputations on the line for the noble cause of twinning. ‘We were very loud on social media to the point where people knew us as “those toilet people”,’ says Emily.
But the cause made it all worthwhile, says Jess. ‘We are both genuinely passionate about international development so that made us want to give time to it. And people were very generous…’
Meanwhile, students from Bristol University's School of Geographical Sciences raised more than £360 at their annual Globe Ball to link their loo with a latrine in Burundi.

And students at Durham University twinned toilets in ten of its colleges after student Lis Martin fired up her friends to tackle the poor sanitation she’d experienced first-hand in Africa with Tearfund. At Lis’s prompting, the Student Union passed a motion to twin a toilet from each college with a loo in Burundi – then the Charities Committee and Lis organised a ‘rag raid’ on the streets of Edinburgh, which raised £600.

Join us?

So you really can change the world, one toilet at a time. And if you sign up some mates to help you, you can achieve a whole lot more.

It’s the same principle that Toilet Twinning follows at grassroots level: we bring people in poor communities together to decide what they want and how they are going to achieve it.

And a Toilet Twinned University or Toilet Twinned College campaign will work best when you form a team, pull together and get busy with those toilet puns. Think about it: if you twin lots of toilets, you can transform life for an entire village. Forever. 

Definitely worth getting out of bed for… even after a long night, erm, in the library.

Thursday, 19 March 2015

Humanure: turning poop green


For many, toilets are taboo and (ahem) human waste is unspeakably off limits. But we at Toilet Twinning believe that our poop should not be poo-pooed.

In fact, it has huge untapped potential to revolutionise the way the world farms and feeds its families – all thanks to the wonders of composting.

Already, Toilet Twinning partners in several countries, including Uganda and the DRC, are installing ecosan toilets – miraculous thunderboxes where our doodly-squit is composted and transformed into a soil conditioner bursting with nutrients.*

Because, if it’s properly composted, human waste can become ‘humanure’, solving waste management issues, boosting agricultural yields and sparing farmers the cost of expensive fertilisers.

In countries such as Haiti, eco-san toilets as a waste management system helped contain the cholera outbreak that followed the 2010 earthquake. And pioneering humanure projects in Bangladesh promise new business opportunities as well as improved harvests; here, plans to use humanure as an alternative cooking fuel are good news for the environment too.

An eco-san toilet in Bihar, India
Compost loos offer significant practical advantages over other types of latrine in some contexts. Because in most types of composting loo the pits are used cyclically – with some sealed for decomposition while others are opened – they need not be dug so deep.

So the humanure revolution is gathering pace. But its advocates do face some challenges. Understandably, many people are squeamish about using human poo to grow food.

As Tearfund’s WASH Lead, Frank Greaves, explains, it can take a great deal of time and persuasion to change attitudes in the poor communities where we work if composting and the recycling of human waste are not the norm.

‘We have to be really sensitive to cultural beliefs and practices,’ says Frank, ‘but people are very excited about the potential of eco-san toilets when they can see the difference that composting in this way can make to their farming.’

Once some people start using composting latrines, the concept is promoted more widely, typically through ‘village champions’ and ‘demonstrator households’, Frank explains.

Mandy Burton reads from The Loveliest Loo at a workshop
Toilet twinner and environmental artist Mandy Burton also understands people’s initial qualms – but she is keen to help overcome them.

Mandy has just written The Loveliest Loo, a children’s colouring book about a waterless composting toilet, featuring the world’s first Toilet Twinned imaginary loo, no less. (Yes, her beautifully drawn virtual loo is officially twinned with one in the DRC.)

The book is a simple and witty account in verse of Pearl’s first visit to a compost loo. The child’s wonder at these natural processes is something that Mandy herself has never grown out of.
‘I’m fascinated by the composting process: you shove all this stuff in and out comes beautiful soil,’ says Mandy. ‘For me, composting symbolises life, death and rebirth and it’s an absolutely magical process.’

But there’s a deeper concern underlying Mandy’s love of compost loos and it’s one Toilet Twinning shares: environmental sustainability more generally.

That’s what drew her to become part of Redfield, a housing cooperative in Buckinghamshire devoted to permaculture and sustainable living. Redfield is also home to lowimpact.org, a network of organisations promoting similar values, which printed Mandy’s book. Mandy’s imaginary loo was inspired by the compost loo at Pinfold Community Garden in Barnsley, but Redfield has compost loos too (as well as more mainstream models), which fertilise its orchard.

‘It’s crazy that we use clean water to flush away our poo when we know that it can very easily be transformed into a fantastic soil conditioner,’ Mandy says.

And she makes a serious point. Almost a third of the water we use in our homes is flushed down the loo. That’s about 2 billion litres of fresh water flushed away every day in the UK alone, says Waterwise.

It could be some time before waterless dunnies or compost loos become mainstream in the UK, though their star is rising. The fact they need neither water nor sewerage makes them a very practical option in many locations – from allotments to golf courses to festivals such as Glastonbury.

For Mandy, there are more pressing reasons than mere convenience.

‘Compost loos are all about preserving resources and we really must do that,’ she says. ‘I wanted to write something for children because they are our future. They are the ones who are going to have to pick up the pieces.’

And, by the way, 2015 is the UN's International Year of Soils


*The science bit
Composting loos use evaporation and natural decomposition to make wonders out of poo. Human faeces in the presence of oxygen naturally breaks down into pathogen-free, nutrient-rich compost, thanks to aerobic bacteria. Get the right balance between oxygen, moisture, heat and organic material and you create the perfect breeding ground for these micro-beasties.